Essay topics: TPO-49 - Integrated Writing Task
Like many creatures, humpback whales migrate long distances for feeding and mating purposes. How animals manage to migrate long distances is often puzzling. In the case of humpback whales, we may have found the answer: they may be navigating by the stars, much as early human sailors did. What we know about humpback whales makes this a distinct possibility.
First, humpback whales seem to be intelligent enough to use stars to navigate by. Whales' brains have a high degree of complexity'a common determiner of intelligence. This suggests that the whales' brain power far exceeds that of most other animals. The whales' well-developed cognitive ability seems to provide a sound basis for the ability to use a complex, abstract system of sensory stimuli such as the night sky for orientation.
Second, humpback whales migrate in straight lines. Animals can maintain movement in a straight direction for long distances only if they orient themselves by some external objects or forces. Many birds and other terrestrial creatures, for example, use physical landmarks to help them stay on track as they migrate. Whales, which swim in the open ocean, cannot rely on land features; they could, however, rely on stars at night to provide them with external signs by which to maintain direction over long distances.
Third, humpback whales exhibit an unusual behavior: they are sometimes observed floating straight up for minutes at a time, their heads above the water as though they were looking upward. The behavior is known as spy-hopping, and it is very rare among marine animals. One explanation for the function of spy-hopping is that the whales are looking at the stars, which are providing them with information to navigate by.
Essay topics in audio:
Both the reading and the lecture discuss the possibility that the humpback whales use stars to navigate. The author holds the view that the humpback whales navigate by the stars and suggests three reasons to support the statement. However, the professor disagrees with the author and provides three refutations.
To begin with, the reading contends that the humpback whales are intelligent to navigate by the stars according to their development of brain and cognitive ability. Nevertheless, the professor contradicts it by arguing that there is no connection between the intelligence and the ability to navigate. He further explains that the ability of navigation may be only instinct ability. For example, ducks are able to navigate but their intelligence is average. Consequently, the highly developed intelligent and the ability of navigation is not connected.
In the second place, the author suggests that the whales orient by the starts. Again, the speaker refutes the second theory by provide an evidence that the whales use magnate to navigate. In fact, they have a specialized organ in the brain which senses the magnate field of earth.
Thirdly, the passage mentions that the whales exhibit an unusual behavior to look at the stars. Nonetheless, the professor refutes the statement again. To illustrate, he said the behavior is not that rare. For example, sharks exhibit the behavior as well and they do it to hunt other animals. Furthermore, the whales exhibit such behavior during the day, when there is no star. Hence, the third explanation raised by the passage is not convincing.
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Transition Words or Phrases used:
but, consequently, furthermore, hence, however, look, may, nevertheless, nonetheless, second, so, third, thirdly, well, for example, in fact, to begin with, in the second place
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 9.0 10.4613686534 86% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 1.0 5.04856512141 20% => OK
Conjunction : 8.0 7.30242825607 110% => OK
Relative clauses : 11.0 12.0772626932 91% => OK
Pronoun: 17.0 22.412803532 76% => OK
Preposition: 29.0 30.3222958057 96% => OK
Nominalization: 10.0 5.01324503311 199% => OK
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1343.0 1373.03311258 98% => OK
No of words: 256.0 270.72406181 95% => More content wanted.
Chars per words: 5.24609375 5.08290768461 103% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.0 4.04702891845 99% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.79110514749 2.5805825403 108% => OK
Unique words: 128.0 145.348785872 88% => More unique words wanted.
Unique words percentage: 0.5 0.540411800872 93% => More unique words wanted or less content wanted.
syllable_count: 423.0 419.366225166 101% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.7 1.55342163355 109% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 3.0 3.25607064018 92% => OK
Article: 11.0 8.23620309051 134% => OK
Subordination: 1.0 1.25165562914 80% => OK
Conjunction: 0.0 1.51434878587 0% => OK
Preposition: 4.0 2.5761589404 155% => OK
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 17.0 13.0662251656 130% => OK
Sentence length: 15.0 21.2450331126 71% => The Avg. Sentence Length is relatively short.
Sentence length SD: 27.497090126 49.2860985944 56% => The essay contains lots of sentences with the similar length. More sentence varieties wanted.
Chars per sentence: 79.0 110.228320801 72% => OK
Words per sentence: 15.0588235294 21.698381199 69% => OK
Discourse Markers: 10.3529411765 7.06452816374 147% => OK
Paragraphs: 4.0 4.09492273731 98% => OK
Language errors: 0.0 4.19205298013 0% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 6.0 4.33554083885 138% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 4.0 4.45695364238 90% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 7.0 4.27373068433 164% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.380104849569 0.272083759551 140% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.107969743523 0.0996497079465 108% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0640906191344 0.0662205650399 97% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.208916754263 0.162205337803 129% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0124009302252 0.0443174109184 28% => Paragraphs are similar to each other. Some content may get duplicated or it is not exactly right on the topic.
automated_readability_index: 10.8 13.3589403974 81% => Automated_readability_index is low.
flesch_reading_ease: 47.79 53.8541721854 89% => OK
smog_index: 8.8 5.55761589404 158% => OK
flesch_kincaid_grade: 10.3 11.0289183223 93% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 12.58 12.2367328918 103% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 8.14 8.42419426049 97% => OK
difficult_words: 61.0 63.6247240618 96% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 9.0 10.7273730684 84% => OK
gunning_fog: 8.0 10.498013245 76% => OK
text_standard: 9.0 11.2008830022 80% => OK
What are above readability scores?
Rates: 76.6666666667 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 23.0 Out of 30
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.