The reading and the lecture are both about the research regarding the understanding of languages by apes. The author of the reading feels that that apes understand languages in the same way humans do. The lecturer, however, challenges the claims made by the author. He is of the opinion that the author's explanations are faulty.
To begin with, the author argues that gorillas use signs to depict many forms of communication. In the article, it is mentioned that Koko, a lowland gorilla, is able to distinguish between various words, as shown by various tests of Koko's auditory comprehension. This specific argument is challenged by the lecturer. He is of the opinion that the research conducted on Koko is not extensive and requires further investigation. Furthermore, he states that behavior should be communicative to be considered as a languages and thus, the tests performed on Koko which were spontaneous reactions to various situations, cannot be treated as a form of language. Moreover, an interesting phenomenon should be observed in these experiments, if the tests were to be considered as a form of communication.
Secondly, the writer posits that an adult chimpanzee was able to translate words heard into American Sign Language. In contrast, however, the lecturer is of the opinion that the emotional attachment of the researchers with the animals can have some effects in the providing the necessary results. It is possible for the investigators to manipulate the results since, they are very adamant on proving their point regarding the animals, and hence hinder their results.
Finally, the author mentions about another study which involved teaching a chimpanzee on communicating using a keyboard of symbols. The writer argues that this study showed evidence of similarities between a human child and a chimpanzee in the various stages of development. The lecturer challenges this claim by stating that an advanced memory scan such as MRI should be conducted on apes and humans, and the results should be compared to understand whether humans and apes understand language in a similar manner.
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Grammar and spelling errors:
Line 1, column 202, Rule ID: ENGLISH_WORD_REPEAT_BEGINNING_RULE
Message: Three successive sentences begin with the same word. Reword the sentence or use a thesaurus to find a synonym.
...nd languages in the same way humans do. The lecturer, however, challenges the claim...
Line 7, column 496, Rule ID: IN_A_X_MANNER
Message: Consider replacing "in a similar manner" with adverb for "similar"; eg, "in a hasty manner" with "hastily".
...her humans and apes understand language in a similar manner.
Transition Words or Phrases used:
finally, furthermore, hence, however, if, moreover, regarding, second, secondly, so, thus, in contrast, such as, to begin with, in the same way
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 21.0 10.4613686534 201% => Less to be verbs wanted.
Auxiliary verbs: 6.0 5.04856512141 119% => OK
Conjunction : 8.0 7.30242825607 110% => OK
Relative clauses : 13.0 12.0772626932 108% => OK
Pronoun: 23.0 22.412803532 103% => OK
Preposition: 49.0 30.3222958057 162% => OK
Nominalization: 7.0 5.01324503311 140% => OK
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1781.0 1373.03311258 130% => OK
No of words: 338.0 270.72406181 125% => OK
Chars per words: 5.26923076923 5.08290768461 104% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.28774723029 4.04702891845 106% => OK
Word Length SD: 3.03458150657 2.5805825403 118% => OK
Unique words: 175.0 145.348785872 120% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.51775147929 0.540411800872 96% => OK
syllable_count: 557.1 419.366225166 133% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.6 1.55342163355 103% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 7.0 3.25607064018 215% => Less pronouns wanted as sentence beginning.
Article: 12.0 8.23620309051 146% => OK
Subordination: 2.0 1.25165562914 160% => OK
Conjunction: 2.0 1.51434878587 132% => OK
Preposition: 3.0 2.5761589404 116% => OK
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 16.0 13.0662251656 122% => OK
Sentence length: 21.0 21.2450331126 99% => OK
Sentence length SD: 53.482145093 49.2860985944 109% => OK
Chars per sentence: 111.3125 110.228320801 101% => OK
Words per sentence: 21.125 21.698381199 97% => OK
Discourse Markers: 8.9375 7.06452816374 127% => OK
Paragraphs: 4.0 4.09492273731 98% => OK
Language errors: 2.0 4.19205298013 48% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 4.0 4.33554083885 92% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 5.0 4.45695364238 112% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 7.0 4.27373068433 164% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.119078517364 0.272083759551 44% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0373611858341 0.0996497079465 37% => Sentence topic similarity is low.
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0344253975254 0.0662205650399 52% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.0739503843403 0.162205337803 46% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0251002816655 0.0443174109184 57% => OK
automated_readability_index: 14.0 13.3589403974 105% => OK
flesch_reading_ease: 50.16 53.8541721854 93% => OK
smog_index: 8.8 5.55761589404 158% => OK
flesch_kincaid_grade: 11.5 11.0289183223 104% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 13.29 12.2367328918 109% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 9.35 8.42419426049 111% => OK
difficult_words: 100.0 63.6247240618 157% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 8.0 10.7273730684 75% => OK
gunning_fog: 10.4 10.498013245 99% => OK
text_standard: 14.0 11.2008830022 125% => OK
What are above readability scores?
Write the essay in 20 minutes.
Rates: 80.0 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 24.0 Out of 30
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.